The answer to the first question, as you may have guessed from the title of this post, is tides. Last week I talked about tides causing satellites to be locked in synchronous orbits around their primaries (recommended reading if you haven't already). The thing to remember now is that the side of a satellite closest to its primary experiences a stronger gravitational pull than the far side. The difference in forces depends on the mass of the primary, the distance of the satellite from the primary and the size if the satellite.
If you recall from the introduction to gravity post, the force of gravity exerted on a mass, m, a distance, r, from another mass, M, is given by:
If we take M to be the mass of the primary and then consider two smaller masses m1 and m2, one of which is located at r1 on the near side of the satellite, and the other at r2, the far side of the satellite. If we assume our two small masses are equal (you can think of it as considering a kilogram of moon rock in two different locations), then the ratio of the forces experienced by them will be:
That equation might seem a bit abstract, so let's look at it in the context of a few real examples.
- Io is 4.217⨉108 m from Jupiter, on average, and has a radius of 1.8⨉106 m. The pull of Jupiter's gravity on the far side is just 99.15% that on the near side.
- Doing a similar calculation for the moon (orbiting the Earth), we find far side gravity 99.10% that of near side.
- Mercury orbiting the sun has far side gravity 99.99% that of the near side since, even though it's very close to the sun, it's a lot further away than the moons are from their primaries.
- Let's look at Saturn now. Not one of Saturn's moons, but Saturn's rings. The main rings, according to Wiki, extend between 66 900 km and 480 000 km above the centre of Saturn. The gravitational pull from Saturn on the far edge is 83.6% that of the near edge. Compared with the solid bodies discussed above, that's a much more significant difference.
It is now possible to come up with a scenario where the pull of the primary on the near side of the satellite is bigger than the pull of its own gravity. Let's look at one of Saturn's tiny moonlets. Pan orbits inside Saturn's A ring (towards the outer edge of the ring system). It's radius is only 14.2 km and it weighs 5⨉1015 kg, making it's surface acceleration due to gravity 0.0016 m/s2 (less than a ten thousandth of a percent that of Earth's). By comparison, the acceleration due to gravity from Saturn at that distance is 2.12 m/s2, more than 1300 times greater. Clearly, Pan could not have formed where it now orbits since it's very much held together by chemical forces, not gravitational.
EDIT: Correction made to the above paragraph. Previously I had stated that if you stood on the Saturn-side of Pan you would fall up into Saturn. This is not true. The more accurate statement I should've made was that if you were floating around in the vicinity of Pan's orbit and Pan came past you, its gravity would not be strong enough to pull you in over Saturn's gravity. No matter how close to it you were (even if you could touch the surface), if you were not already moving along with it (and hence had enough centripetal acceleration to balance Saturn's gravitational acceleration), then Saturn's gravity would win out and you would fall towards Saturn, rather than towards Pan.
Even further out than the point at which the primary's gravity becomes stronger than the satellite's gravity, the primary's gravity will start to deform the satellite. This effect is not dissimilar to the tidal bulge the moon causes on Earth. It is also part of the reason the Galilean moons of Jupiter are tidally locked.
(Interesting fact: over time, the tidal bulge of the Earth is causing the Earth to slow down its period of rotation since the change in shape (which isn't constant, remember, as the moon's orbit is much slower than the Earth's day) alters the way it rotates (catch phrase: conservation of angular momentum). The drag of the water in the tidal bulge is also pushing the moon back, slightly, in its orbit. Eventually (and we're talking a pretty long eventually) the Earth-moon system will settle into a mutually tidally locked rotation with the moon significantly further away than it is now. Here is an interesting article about it from Space.com.)
In the case of a satellite which is reasonably fluid and only being held together by its own gravitational pull (called self-gravity), then there is no reason for it to stay together as one lump. It will disintegrate because the part closer to the primary wants to orbit faster than the part further away. A disintegrated satellite will turn into a system of rings around the planet. The point at which this happens is called the Roche limit and the equation which tells us the distance from the primary of the Roche limit is:
|d is the distance of the Roche limit from the centre of the primary, R is the radius of the primary and ⍴M and ⍴m are the densities of the primary and the satellite respecively.|
You'll notice that there are densities in the above formula. The density of the satellite is relevant because it's a measure of both mass and gravity (since we're talking satellites that are only held together by their self gravity and not chemical bonds). The density of the primary comes into it because we need to know the mass (which is proportional to radius cubed times density and R will becomes cubed if you move it inside the brackets) but the radius is also relevant because if the Roche limit is inside the primary, we can pretty much ignore it.
Of course, most satellite aren't balls of dust but are held together by other chemical forces (like Pan is). For example a rock on Earth isn't held together by gravity, it's held together by the chemical bonds between the different atoms and molecules inside (slightly different bonds depending on it's composition). Similarly, once a satellite has formed (outside of the Roche limit), then it probably goes through other experiences (such as tidal heating) which fuse it into a more solid lump. If it then wanders inside the Roche limit, it's not going to dissolve just because it couldn't've formed there. Pan and a handful of other moons in Saturn's rings prove this point. So what's the Roche limit for satellites held together by more than just gravitational forces? It sort of depends on the forces, but Roche himself derived an approximation for fluid satellites which deform a bit before they break up due to the tidal forces:
If you're wondering whether rock counts as fluid, it does. Everything will deform a bit under sufficiently strong forces.
So this last equation is the point at which a satellite will start to break up if it spirals in too close to its primary. For Earth-moon system, the moon will disintegrate if it wanders within 11 000 km. Luckily for the moon, this isn't likely to happen until the sun end's it's main sequence life.